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Publications (pdfs)

  1. Wheeler JHR, Foster KR, Durham WH 2024. Bacteria use spatial sensing to direct chemotaxis on surfaces. Nature microbiology, accepted.
  2. Spragge F, Bakkeren E, Jahn, MT, Araujo EBN, Pearson CF, Wang X, Pankhurst L, Cunrath O, Foster KR 2023. Microbiome diversity protects against pathogens by nutrient blocking. Science, 382: eadj3502. Supplementary info. Science perspective by Radlinski and Baumler. Cell Host and Microbe preview by Ellermann 
  3. Choudhary D, Foster KR, Uphoff S 2023. Chaos in a bacterial stress response. Current Biology, 33:1–11.
  4. Booth SC, Smith WPJ, Foster KR 2023. The evolution of short and long-range bacterial weapons. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 10.1038/s41559-023-02234-2
  5. Yang Y, Coyte KZ, Foster KR, Li A 2023. Reactivity of complex communities can be more important than stability. Nature Communications, 14: 7204
  6. Yang Y, Foster KR, Coyte KZ, Li A 2023. Time delays modulate the stability of complex ecosystems. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 7: 1610–1619.
  7. Smith WPJ, Wucher BR, Nadell CD, Foster KR, 2023. Bacterial defences: mechanisms, evolution and antimicrobial resistance. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 10.1038/s41579-023-00877-3
  8. Granato E, Smith WPJ, Foster KR 2023. Collective protection against the type VI secretion system in bacteriaISME journal, 0.1038/s41396-023-01401-4
  9. Choudhary D, Lagage V, Foster KR, Uphoff S, 2023. Phenotypic heterogeneity in the bacterial oxidative stress response is driven by cell-cell interactions. Cell Reports, 42: 112168
  10. Palmer JD and Foster KR 2022. Bacterial species rarely work together. Science, 376: 581-582
  11. Oliveira NM, Wheeler JHR, Deroy C, Booth SC, Walsh EJ, Durham WH, Foster KR 2022. Suicidal chemotaxis in bacteria. Nature Communications, 13: 7608
  12. Palmer J, Foster KR 2022. The evolution of spectrum in antibiotics and bacteriocins. PNAS, 119: e2205407119. PNAS Commentary by Waldetoft and Brown. Winner of the Gilbert S. Omenn Prize!
  13. Sharp C, Foster KR. 2022. Host control and the evolution of cooperation in host microbiomes. Nature Communications,13: 3567
  14. Kumar RK, Foster KR, 2022. 3D printing of microbial communities: A new platform for understanding and engineering microbiomes. Microbial biotechnology,16:489–493
  15. Bentley MA, Yates CA, Hein J, Preston GM, Foster KR 2022. Pleiotropic constraints promote the evolution of cooperation in cellular groups. PLoS Biology, 20(6): e3001626
  16. Deroy C, Wheeler JHR, Rumianek AN, Cook PR, Durham WM, Foster KR, and Walsh EJ 2022. Reconfigurable microfluidic circuits for isolating and retrieving cells of interest. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 10.1021/acsami.2c07177
  17. Niehus R, Oliveira NM, Li A, Fletcher AG, Foster KR 2021. The evolution of strategy in bacterial warfare via the regulation of bacteriocins and antibiotics. eLife 10:e69756.
  18. Coyte KZ, Rao C, Rakoff-Nahoum S, Foster KR. 2021 Ecological rules for the assembly of microbiome communities. PLoS Biology 9:e3001116.
  19. Kumar RK, Meiller-Legrand T, Alcinesio A, Gonzalez D, Mavridou DA, Meacock OJ, Smith WP, Zhou L, Kim W, Pulcu GS, Bayley H, Foster KR. 2021 Droplet printing reveals the importance of micron-scale structure for bacterial ecology. Nature Communications, 12: 1-12.
  20. Smith WPJ, Brodmann M, Unterweger D, Davit Y, Comstock LE, Basler M, Foster KR. 2020 The evolution of tit-for-tat in bacteria via the type VI secretion system. Nature Communications, 11, 1-11. Video explaining results
  21. Meacock OJ, Doostmohammadi A, Foster KR, Yeomans JM, Durham WM. 2020 Bacteria solve the problem of crowding by moving slowly. Nature Physics, 17: 205-210. Science Highlight. Video explaining results.
  22. Granato E, Foster KR. 2020 The evolution of mass cell suicide in bacterial warfare. Current Biology, 30: 1-8. Video explaining results
  23. Smith WPJ, Vettiger A, Winter J, Ryser T, Comstock LE, Basler M, Foster KR. 2020 The evolution of the type VI secretion system as a disintegration weapon. PLoS Biology 18,5: e3000720. Video explaining results.
  24. Lories B, Roberfroid S, Dieltjens L, De Coster D, Foster KR, Steenackers HP. 2020 Biofilm bacteria use stress responses to detect and respond to competitors. Current Biology, 30: 1-14. WATCH: Animation explaining results. Commentary by Tipping and Gibbs (via Science Direct).
  25. Dieltjens L, Appermans K, Lissens M, Lories B, Kim W, Van der Eycken EV, Foster KR, Steenackers HP. 2020 Inhibiting bacterial cooperation is an evolutionarily robust anti-biofilm strategy. Nature Communications. 11, 107. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-13660-x. WATCH: Animation explaining results
  26. Fillol-Salom A, Alsaadi A, de Sousa JA, Zhong L, Foster KR, Rocha EP, Penadés JR, Ingmer H, Haaber J. 2019 Bacteriophages benefit from generalized transduction. PLoS pathogens. 15,7:e1007888.
  27. Agren JA, Davies NG and Foster KR. 2019. Enforcement is central to the evolution of cooperation. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 3: 1018–1029 [Supplementary Info]
  28. Granato ET, Meiller-Legrand TA, Foster KR. 2019. The evolution and ecology of bacterial warfare, Current Biology, 29: R521–R537.
  29. Johnson K, Foster KR. 2018.  Why does the microbiome affect behaviour? Nature Reviews Microbiology, 16:647–655
  30. Frost I, Smith W, Mitri S, San Millan A, Davit Y, Osborne JM, Pitt-Francis JM, Maclean C, Foster KR. 2018. Cooperation, competition and antibiotic resistance in bacterial colonies.  ISME journal, 12: 1582–1593
  31. Mavridou DAI, Gonzalez D, Kim W, West SA, Foster KR. 2018.  Bacteria use collective behavior to generate diverse combat strategies. Current Biology, 28: 345-355
  32. Bor, B., McLean, J.S., Foster, K.R., Cen, L., To, T.T., Serrato-Guillen, A., Dewhirst, F.E., Shi, W., and He, X. (2018). Rapid evolution of decreased host susceptibility drives a stable relationship between ultrasmall parasite TM7x and its bacterial host. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences115, 12277–12282.
  33. Gonzalez, D., Sabnis, A., Foster, K.R., and Mavridou, D.A.I. (2018). Costs and benefits of provocation in bacterial warfare. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences115, 7593–7598.
  34. Ashby B, Watkins E, Lourenco J, Gupta S, Foster KR. 2017. Competing species leave many potential niches unfilled. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 10.1038/s41559-017-0295-3.
  35. Walsh E, Feuerborn A, Wheeler J, Tan A, Durham WM, Foster KR, and Cook P. 2017. Microfluidics with fluid wallsNature Communications, doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00846-4
  36. McDonald GC, Farine DC, Foster KR, Biernaskie JM 2017 Assortment and the analysis of natural selection on social traits. Evolution, 71: 2693-2702
  37. Foster KR, Schluter J, Coyte KZ and Rakoff-Nahoum S. 2017. The evolution of the host microbiome as an ecosystem on a leash. Nature, 548: 43-51
  38. Niehus R, Picot K, Oliveira NM, Mitri S, and Foster KR. 2017. The evolution of siderophore production as a competitive trait. Evolution, 71: 1443–1455. Commentary by Connelly and Dickinson.
  39. Smith W, Davit J, Osborne JM, Kim, W., Foster KR, Pitt-Francis JM 2017. Cell morphology drives spatial patterning in microbial communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,  114: E280–E286.
  40. Coyte K Tabuteaue, H, Gaffney EA, Foster KR, Durham WH 2017. Microbial competition in porous environments can select against rapid biofilm growth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114E161–E170.
  41. Rakoff-Nahoum S, Foster KR, Comstock L. 2016. The evolution of cooperation within the gut microbiota. Nature, 533: 255–259. Commentary in Cell Host and Microbe.
  42. Biernaskie J, Foster KR. 2016. Ecology and multilevel selection explain aggression in spider colonies. Ecology Letters, 19: 873-879.
  43. Oliveira N, Foster KR, Durham W. 2016. Single-cell twitching chemotaxis in developing biofilmsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113: 6532–6537.
  44. Schluter S, Schoech A, Foster KR, Mitri S. 2016. The evolution of quorum sensing as a mechanism to infer kinship. PLoS Computational Biology, 12: e1004848
  45. Nadell CD, Drescher K, Foster KR. 2016 Spatial structure, cooperation, and competition in biofilms, Nature Reviews Microbiology, 14: 589-600.
  46. McLoughlin K, Schluter K, Rakoff-Nahoum S, Smith A, Foster KR. 2016. Host selection of microbiota via differential adhesion. Cell Host and Microbe, 19: 550–559. 
  47. Steenackers H, Parijs I, Foster KR, Vanderleyden J. 2016. Experimental evolution in biofilm populations. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 40:373-397.
  48. Mitri S, Foster KR. 2016. Pleiotropy and the low cost of individual traits promote cooperation. Evolution, 70: 488–494.
  49. Kim W, Levy SB, Foster KR. 2016. Rapid radiation in bacteria leads to a division of labour. Nature Communications, 7, doi:10.1038/ncomms10508    
  50. Mitri S, Clarke E, Foster KR. 2015. Resource limitation drives spatial organization in microbial groupsISME journal, doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.208.
  51. Niehus R, Mitri S, Fletcher A, Foster KR. 2015. Migration and horizontal gene transfer divide microbial genomes into multiple nichesNature Communications, 6, doi:10.1038/ncomms9924.[IbM code]
  52. Coyte KZ, Schluter J, Foster KR. 2015. The ecology of the microbiome: networks, competition, and stabilityScience, 350: 663-666[Supplementary materials]. BBC coverage. Commentary by McNally and Brown at Nature Microbiology.
  53. Oliveira NM, Martinez-Garcia E, Xavier J, Durham WM, Kolter R, Kim W, and Foster KR. 2015. Biofilm formation as a response to ecological competitionPLoS Biology, 13: e1002191. Research Highlight in Nature. Dispatch in Current Biology by Vega and Gore. "Editor's Pick in Microbiology at PLoS   
  54. Schluter J, Nadell CD, Bassler BL and Foster KR. 2015 Adhesion as a weapon in microbial competition. ISME journal, 9, 139-149.
  55. Cornforth D, Foster K. R. 2015. The art of bacterial war. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112: 10827–10828
  56. Oliveira NM, Niehus R, Foster KR. 2014 The evolutionary limits to cooperation in microbial communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111: 17941-17946.
  57. Koch G, Yepes A, Forstner KU, Wermser C, Modamio J, Ohlsen K, Foster KR and Lopez D 2014. Evolution of last-resort antibiotic resistance in Staphyloccocus aureus via bacterial competition. Cell, 158, 1060-1071.
  58. Kim W, Racimo F, Schluter J, Levy SB, Foster KR. 2014. Importance of Positioning for Microbial Evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, E1639–E1647. Research Highlight in Nature. Research Highlight in PNAS.
  59. Crespi B, KR Foster and Úbeda F 2014 First principles of Hamiltonian medicine. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B. 369: 20130366.
  60. Mitri S, Foster KR 2013. The genotypic view of social interactions in microbial communities. Annual Review of Genetics,47:247–73.
  61. Koschwanez J, Foster KR, Murray AJ. 2013. Improved use of a public good selects for the evolution of undifferentiated multicellularity. eLife, 2:e00367. (Insight summary article by Gresham) (National Geographic article by Carl Zimmer)
  62. Cornforth DM, Foster KR 2013 Competition sensing: the social side of bacterial stress responses. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 4, 285-93. [Table S1, Box S2, Figure S3
  63. Schluter J, Foster KR. 2012. The evolution of mutualism in gut microbiota via host epithelial selection. PLoS Biology, 10(11): e1001424.
  64. Caldara M, Friedlander RS, Kavanaugh NL, Aizenberg K, Foster KR, Ribbeck K 2012. Mucin biopolymers prevent bacterial aggregation by retaining cells in the free-swimming state. Current Biology, 22, 2325–2330.
  65. Foster KR, Bell T. 2012. Competition, not cooperation, dominates interactions among culturable microbial species. Current biology 22, 1845–1850. [Supplementary material]. Research Highlight in Nature.
  66. Hoffmann K, Foster KR, Korb J. 2012. Nest value mediates reproductive decision making within termite societies. Behavioral Ecology, 23, 1203-1208.                                   
  67. Koschwanez J, Foster KR, Murray AJ. 2011. Sucrose utilization in budding yeast as a model for the origin of undifferentiated multicellularity. Plos Biology, 9(8): e1001122. Supplementary material; ("Synopsis" article by Robinson)
  68. Korolev KS, Xavier JB, Nelson DR, Foster KR 2011. A quantitative test of population genetics using spatio-genetic patterns in bacterial colonies. American Naturalist, 178: 538-552.
  69. Mitri S, Xavier J, Foster KR 2011 Social evolution in multispecies biofilms Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108 Suppl 2: 10839-46.
  70. Foster K.R. 2011 The secret social lives of microorganisms. Microbe, 6:183-186.
  71. Foster KR. 2011 The sociobiology of molecular systems. Nature Reviews Genetics, 12: 193-203.
  72. Xavier J, Kim W, Foster KR 2011 A molecular mechanism that stabilizes cooperative secretions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Molecular Microbiology 79, 166-179 Supplementary figures Editor's Choice in Science magazine.
  73. Foster KR. 2011 Q&A Current Biology, 21, R58-59
  74. Ratnieks FLW, Foster KR, Wenseleers T. 2011 Darwin's special difficulty: the evolution of "neuter insects" and current theory. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 65:481–492.
  75. Korb J, Foster KR 2010 Ecological competition favours cooperation in termite societies. Ecology Letters, 13: 754-760.
  76. Nadell CD, Foster KR, Xavier J. 2010 Emergence of spatial structure in cell groups and the evolution of cooperation. PLoS Computational Biology, 6: e1000716.
  77. Foster KR, Pizzari T 2010 The secret society of sperm. Current Biology, 20: R314-316.
  78. Foster KR 2010 Social behavior in microorganisms. In: Social behaviour: genes, ecology and evolution (Tamas Szekely, Allen J. Moore & Jan Komdeur, eds.). Cambridge University Press.
  79. Wenseleers, T, Gardner A, Foster KR 2010 Social evolution theory: a review of methods and approaches. In: Social behaviour: genes, ecology and evolution (Tamas Szekely, Allen J. Moore & Jan Komdeur, eds.). Cambridge University Press.
  80. Korb J, Weil T, Hoffmann K, Foster KR, Rehli M 2009. A gene required for reproductive suppression in termites. Science, 324: 758. [Supplementary data]
  81. Foster KR 2009 A defense of sociobiology. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology, Cold Spring Harbor Press,74: 403-418.
  82. Baker AS, Foster KR 2009 Vulgarogamasus sphecophilus (Cooreman) comb. nov. (Acari: Mesostigmata: Parasitidae): a redescription and new hymenopteran association. Zootaxa, 2088: 51–64.
  83. Xavier J, Martinez-Garcia E. & Foster, KR 2009 Social evolution of spatial patterns in bacterial biofilms: when conflict drives disorder. American Naturalist, 174: 1-12. [Supplement]
  84. Nadell CD, Xavier J, & Foster, KR 2009 The sociobiology of biofilms. FEMS microbiology reviews,33: 206-224.
  85. Foster KR, Kokko H 2009 The evolution of superstitious and superstition-like behaviour. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 276: 31-37. [Supplement].
  86. Smukalla S, Caldara M, Pochet N, Beauvais A, Guadagnini S, Yan C, Vinces MD, Jansen A, Christine Prevost M, Latge J, Fink GR, Foster KR, Verstrepen KJ 2008. FLO1 is a variable green beard gene that drives biofilm-like cooperation in budding yeast. Cell, 135: 727-737. [Supplementary data] ["In this issue" highlight] [Commentary by Brown and Buckling] [Commentary by Queller]
  87. Lehmann L, Foster KR, Borenstein E, Feldman, MW 2008 Social and individual learning of helping in humans and other species. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 23: 664-671.
  88. Pizzari, T, Foster KR 2008 Sperm sociality: cooperation, altruism, and spite. Plos Biology, 6: e130.
  89. Lehmann L, Feldman MW, Foster KR 2008 Cultural transmission can inhibit the evolution of altruistic helping. American Naturalist, 172: 12-24.
  90. Nadell CD, Xavier J, Levin SA, & Foster, KR 2008 The evolution of quorum sensing in bacterial biofilms. PLoS Biology, 6: e14
  91. Gardner A & Foster KR 2008 The evolution and ecology of cooperation: history and concepts. In: Ecology of Social Evolution. (J. Korb & J. Heinz eds.), pp 1-36. Springer.
  92. Foster, KR 2008 Behavioral ecology: Altruism. In: Encyclopedia of Ecology, pp 154-159. Elsevier
  93. Foster, K. R. and Xavier, J. B. 2007 Cooperation: Bridging ecology and sociobiology. Current Biology, 17: R319-R321 (Commentary on Brockhurst et al. 2007).
  94. Gilbert, O., Foster, K. R., Mehdiabadi, N. J., Strassmann, J. E, and Queller, D. C. 2007 High relatedness maintains multicellular cooperation in a social amoeba by controlling cheater mutants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104: 8913-8917.
  95. Rankin, D. J. , López-Sepulcre, A., Foster, K.R. Kokko, H. 2007. Species-level selection reduces selfishness through competitive exclusion. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 20: 1459-1468.
  96. Xavier, J.B., and Foster, K.R. 2007 Cooperation and conflict in microbial biofilms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104: 876-881. ["In this issue" highlight]
  97. Foster, K.R., Parkinson, K. and Thompson, C. R. L. 2007 What can microbial genetics teach sociobiology? Trends in Genetics, 23:73-80.
  98. Kuzdzal-Fick, J.J., Foster, K. R., Queller, D. C., and Strassmann, J. E. 2007. Exploiting new terrain: an advantage to sociality in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, Behavioral Ecology, 18: 433-437.
  99. Ratnieks, F.L.W., Helanterä, H., and Foster, K. R. 2007 Are mistakes inevitable? Sex allocation specialization by workers can reduce the genetic information needed to assess queen mating frequency. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 244: 470-477.
  100. Foster, K.R., Wenseleers, T., Ratnieks, F.L.W. and Queller, D. C. 2006. There is nothing wrong with inclusive fitness. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21: 599-600 (reply to Fletcher et al. 2006)
  101. Foster, K.R. 2006. The Phoenix Effect. Nature, 441: 291-292 PDF (News and Views on Fiegna et al.)
  102. Foster, K.R., Kokko, H. 2006. Cheating can stabilise cooperation in mutualisms. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 273: 2233-2239.
  103. Foster, K.R. 2006. Balancing synthesis with pluralism in sociobiology Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 19: 1394-1396 (commentary on the Target Review article by Lehmann and Keller)
  104. Foster, K.R., Wenseleers, T. 2006. A general model for the evolution of mutualisms Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 19: 1283-1293
  105. Foster, K.R., Wenseleers, T. and Ratnieks, F.L.W. 2006. Kin selection is the key to altruism. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21: 57-60
  106. Foster K.R. and Grundmann, H. 2006. Do we need to put society first? The potential for tragedy in antimicrobial resistance. PLoS Medicine, 3(2): e29
  107. Ratnieks, F.L.W., Foster, K.R. and Wenseleers, T. 2006. Conflict resolution in insect societies. Annual Review of Entomology 51: 581-608
  108. Foster KR, Ratnieks FLW 2005. A new eusocial vertebrate? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 363-364
  109. Foster KR. 2005. Hamiltonian medicine: why the social lives of pathogens matter. Science 308: 1269-127
  110. Castillo D, Switz G, Foster KR, Strassmann JS, Queller DC. 2005. A cost to chimerism in Dictyostelium discoideum on natural substrates. Evolutionary Ecology Research 7: 263-271
  111. Foster KR., Shaulsky G, Strassmann, J. E., Queller, D. C., Thompson, C. R. L. 2004. Pleiotropy as a mechanism to stabilise cooperation. Nature 431: 693-696
  112. Foster KR. 2004. Diminishing returns in social evolution: the not-so-tragic commons. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 17:1058-1072
  113. Dani FR, Foster KR , Zacchi F, Seppä P, Massolo A, Carelli A, Arevalo E , Queller DC, Strassmann JE, Turillazzi S. 2004. Can cuticular lipids provide sufficient information for within colony nepotism in wasps? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 271: 745–753
  114. Queller, D.C., Foster, K.R., Fortunato, A. & Strassmann, J.E 2003. Cooperation and conflict in the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum. In: Kikuchi, T., Kubo, T., & Higashi, S. Social Insects and Sociogenetics (pps 173-200). Hokkaido University Press. Sapporo, Japan.
  115. Foster KR, Fortunato A, Strassmann JE, Queller DC. 2002. The costs and benefits of being a chimera. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 269: 2357–2362.
  116. Foster KR, Gulliver J, Ratnieks FLW. 2002.Why workers do not reproduce: worker policing in the European hornet Vespa crabro. Insectes sociaux, 49: 41-44.
  117. Foster KR, Wenseleers T, Ratnieks FLW. 2001. Spite: Hamilton’s unproven theory. Annales Zooogici Fennici, 38: 229-238.
  118. Ratnieks FLW, Monnin T, Foster KR. 2001. Inclusive fitness theory: novel predictions and tests in eusocial Hymenoptera. Annales Zooogici Fennici, 38: 201-215.
  119. Foster KR, Ratnieks FLW. 2001. The effect of sex allocation biasing on the evolution of worker policing in hymenopteran societies. American Naturalist, 158: 615-623.
  120. Foster KR and Ratnieks FLW. 2001. Paternity, reproduction and conflict in vespine wasps: a model system for testing kin selection predictions. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 50: 1-8.
  121. Foster KR, Ratnieks FLW, Gyllenstrand N, Thorén PA. 2001. Colony kin structure and male production in Dolichovespula wasps. Molecular Ecology, 10: 1003-1010.
  122. Foster KR, Ratnieks FLW. 2001. Convergent evolution of worker policing by egg eating in the honey bee and common wasp. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 268: 169-174.
  123. Foster KR. 2000 The conflict over male production in vespine wasps. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Sheffield.
  124. Foster, K. R., Ratnieks, F. L. W. 2000. Facultative worker policing in a social wasp. Nature, 407: 692-693.
  125. Foster, K. R., Wenseleers, T., Ratnieks, F. L. W. 2000. Spite in social insects. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 15: 469-470.
  126. Foster, K. R., Ratnieks, F. L. W., Raybould, A. F. 2000. Do hornets have zombie workers? Molecular Ecology, 9: 735-742.
  127. Foster, K. R., Seppä, P., Ratnieks, F. L. W., Thorén, P. A. 1999. Low paternity in the hornet Vespa crabro indicates that multiple mating by queens is derived in vespine wasps. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 46: 252-257.